The purpose of the current study is to investigate whether peer video recording helps non-English majored college students enhance their speaking performance. Eighty students were selected and assigned to two groups: an experimental group and a control group. Peer video recording was presented to experimental students while no training was given to students in the control group in the same task-based approach. The data, collected based on a pre-posttest design, were analyzed to find out whether or not there were differences between two groups in terms of fluency, grammar, vocabulary, pronunciation and interactive communication. A questionnaire-based survey was also implemented to explore students’ attitudes on the treatment—peer video recording task-based approach. The study’s results revealed that students in the group treated with peer video recording task-based approach significantly outperformed those in the control group in terms of fluency, grammar, pronunciation and interactive communication while students’ vocabulary score remained after the treatment. In addition, the data obtained from the questionnaire indicated the experimental students had positive attitudes towards the peer video task-based approach. The results from the study provide grounds for some suggestions and recommendations for the teachers, the students as well as the teaching and learning speaking in Vietnam.